Cuba Approves Electronic Surveillance without Court Authorization

By El Toque

Photo: Kyn Torres.

HAVANA TIMES – Cuba’s State Council has stipulated three important legal regulations, which will directly affect Cuban citizens’ freedom: Decree-Law 380 amends the Criminal Code, Code of Criminal Procedure and the Counter-Terrorism Act, which was published in the Cuban Republic’s Official Gazette on November 18th.

The legal modifications included the legalization and regulation of special investigation techniques. Changes to the law recognize investigative techniques such as under-cover investigations, effective collaboration, electronic surveillance or any other kind of surveillance and controlled deliveries.

According to the amendment which appears in Article 110.1 of Cuba’s Code of Criminal Procedure, these techniques “are used whenever they are considered ideal or necessary to investigate criminal acts which require them because of their seriousness, connotation or organization, including operations with a foreign origin or target.”

Some of the techniques now subject to regulation, have been openly used by State Security and Domestic Affairs bodies for a while now. Nevertheless, it is only now that these special techniques can be legally used and incorporated as evidence in investigations where “undercover agents are used, trained by the Ministry of Interior’s specialized bodies to penetrate and stay informed so it can control criminal activities…”.

However, one of the most striking measures that also appears within Decree-Law 389 (which has been approved by the State Council and not during a Cuban Parliament plenary session) is that “electronic surveillance or any kind of surveillance” can be legally used during criminal procedure.

The amendments introduced to the law allow means to be used in criminal investigations which “provide voice listening and recording, localization and following, photographs and image recording, intervention of any kind of communication, access to I.T systems and other technical resources which allow the discovery of and proof of the crime”; without the need for a judge to give their authorization before a citizens’ privacy is invaded.

Even though mass surveillance is illegal under international Human Rights laws, more and more governments are authorizing these practices in the name of national security and counter-terrorism efforts. According to Amnesty International, Cuba, with its new decree-law, joins a list of countries which have given surveillance a “carte blanche” without the need for court authorization, by stipulating its provision within the Law, including France, the UK, China, Russia and the US.

The difference is that some of these regulations have been issued after terrorist attacks and are basically used to investigate “great-magnitude” crimes, linked to terrorism or organized crime. Plus, they are based on a legal theory that considers any person implicated in this kind of procedure as an “enemy of society”, and not as a rights-bearing citizen.

Other foreign Criminal Codes, such as Mexico’s, recognize the need for surveillance to be previously approved by a judge ruling.

In Cuba, the recently-published amendments allow not only the use of these interventions, but also set their duration, at the discretion of the Ministry of Interior and Attorney-General’s Office.

The Cuban government has justified this measure by falling back upon international arguments. In the Decree-Law’s only “THEREFORE”, it states: “National criminal law needs to be reinforced, when it comes to what international treaties currently in force have ordered for the country, so as to improve its effectiveness in the prevention and tackling of asset laundering and financing terrorism, so as to defend national interests, especially to prevent the use of national territory for these purposes, strengthening cooperation efforts with the international community against these crimes and stipulating the application of special investigative techniques, corresponding with postulates endorsed by the Cuban Constitution, promulgated on April 10th 2019.”

This kind of electronic surveillance without court authorization clashes with one of the rights that was praised throughout the entire constitutional reforms process, and when the draft Constitution was voted in by the population in 2019.

Article 50 of the Constitution recognizes the inviolability of correspondence and other forms of communication.

However, the Constitution also left the formalities to abide by this law at the mercy of subsequent laws (like the amendments made now).

This way of writing up laws proves the danger that different experts were warning about during the popular consultation phase of the constitutional project, saying that a vague and imprecise text, with phrases such as “the law will regulate”, left many doors open to possible deformations of the consecrated rights that appear in the new Constitution.

Constitutional Law graduate, Raudiel Pena, took part in debates leading up to the February 24th 2019 referendum and warned that the draft Constitution had “excessive legislative references, especially when it came to fundamental rights.”

“There is always a risk of deformation when the Constitution refers to a law, because a law that is adopted shouldn’t, in theory, contradict or surpass what the Constitution itself recognizes about this certain point,” the expert added.

Cuban reality has proved that when the Constitution’s text doesn’t clearly include the ability to establish limits for those writing up subsequent legislative decisions, constitutional guarantees aren’t enough to prevent arbitrary events.

These aren’t unlikely events either. Recently, animals rights advocate Beatriz Batista posted on her Facebook profile that several activists’ phones were checked at a meeting with Health Ministry officials, which they attended to agree the end of the indiscriminate capture and killing of stray dogs in the country.

The publication of Decree-Law 389 proves that a process, which should have been pushed forward by Cuban courts and the National Assembly of People’s Power, was shaped in a different way and in absolute secrecy. This has also happened at a time when Cuban lawmakers are agreeing on scarce social impact laws such as draft laws on the Organization and Functioning of National and Municipal Assemblies of the State and People’s Councils.

Some of the laws that amend the Decree-Law also have their place within the legislative timeline that lawmakers say they are meeting. According to the 10th Temporary Provision of the Cuban Constitution passed in April 2019, the Governing Council of the People’s Supreme Court has to present amendments to the Code of Criminal Procedure to the National Assembly, within 18 months of the Constitution coming into force.

Amendments collected in Decree-Law 389 do not change the logic of the current Code of Criminal Procedure, they just attempt to regulate practices that have been developed de facto for years already, outside the law, but granting investigative authorities way too much freedom, and their work and decisions can never be assessed by a judge or independent body.

This last point, called “judicial supervision” is internationally recognized as necessary to validate limits or infringements on basic human rights.



8 thoughts on “Cuba Approves Electronic Surveillance without Court Authorization

  • Sounds as though the Government are paranoid regarding the activities of the Cuban People, getting more like George Orwell and 1984 and nor 2019! I honestly feel for the people of Cuba. However I thank my lucky stars that I do not live in such a repressive governmental paranoid society!

    Reply
  • But don’t forget our own NSA.

    Reply
  • .. isn’t it A HYPOCRISY to criticize little Cuba, who’s on CONSTANT THREAT OF INVASION, SIEGE, SANCTIONS, and other subversive activities, taking OPEN MEASURES to protect itself, and approving OPENLY .. “Electronic surveillance” against potential AND ACTUAL ENEMIES, headed by it’s DECLARED GIANT ARCH-ENEMY, PERCHING LIKE A HUNGRY VULTURE, 90 miles across the water ?!

    While THAT SAME VULTURE is doing the same !!! ILLEGALLY & MORE SO THAN LEGALLY, against IT’S OWN CITIZENS and the WORLD OVER !!!???
    I hope WE ALL read & listen to US news ?
    I CERTAINLY am not afraid OR MIND, that Cuba spies on me ? For Cuba is not a treat to WORLD peace ? While the USA IS !?

    Reply
  • As demonstrated by Manuel Gutierrez, the serious implications of Cuba’s Decree-Law 380 are cast aside in order to introduce entirely irrelevant comment about the US. As implied by its title, the Havana Times is about Cuba – with an increasing amount of writing and discussion of other Latin American countries. Why should readers be concerned about the internal matters of the US? Such introductions merely serve to diminish discussion of and concern about the actions of the Castro regime.
    Irrelevant one-liners are exactly that!

    Reply
  • .. Now that the world became a large Haman village, DRAWING a parallel between systems & counties became the ACCEPTED norm !? So it’s ONLY normal to cite, as a PARALLEL example, the SELF APPOINTED leader of the free world, the hub of democracy, liberties, human rights … and the rest of HYPOCRITICAL, BORING, DULL & TEDIOUS SLOGANS, the United States of America !!!???
    So in ANY SUBJECT MATTER .. and ACCORDINGLY, the USA becomes a “MEASUREMENT REFERENCE POINT”, to compare some of the Castro “regime” actions .. that ARE comparable to THOSE TAKEN by the USA “REGIME” !!!

    P.s. : I’d like to REFERENCE you, to the report coming out of Germany, TODAY, of the
    EXPLICITLY HEATED exchange between the German trade minister, and the
    ambassador of the “REGIME” of the USA ! And ALSO, the “FABRICATED (???)
    reports about that “REGIME” SPYING (?!) on other NATO “REGIMES”,
    INCLUDING .. Ms ANGELA MERKEL, in person !? .. not TOO long ago !?

    Reply
  • I am interested in Nassim Fathallah’s statement that “little Cuba” is under “CONSTANT THREAT OF INVASION” without saying by whom? Obviously it is not the US, for under the agreement with Nikita Khrushchev, John Kennedy as President of the US committed to withdrawing US nuclear weapons from Turkey and that the US would not militarily intervene in Cuba. Both commitments have been met.
    If the US were to invade Cuba, it would be a very short military engagement for its military ability far exceeds that of Cuba.
    So who is constantly threatening Cuba with invasion? China economically? Russia by further military occupation?
    It is self evident that Nassim Fathallah is more concerned with encouraging further encroachment of the totalitarian dictatorship in Cuba upon human rights and any glimmer of freedom for its citizens than he is with addressing fact.
    Suggesting that the world “became a large Haman (human) village” is nonsensical. Nor is it achievable when a totalitarian system of dictatorship dreamed up in the 19th century is being pursued by those who would eradicate freedom – freedom of thought, freedom of expression, freedom of movement within their own countries and human rights as defined by the United Nations.
    The Cuban Ministry of Interior is modeled upon the notorious East German Stasi and headed by a KGB trained military officer. It’s function is to ensure repression – and it succeeds! To suggest or to infer that it or the Castro regime as a whole has concern for the rights of the citizens of Cuba would be laughable were it not so sickening.

    Reply
  • .. Mr MacDuff, may rebottle this comment, for I’ll refrain from any further discussion on the subject.

    It seems that you suffer from a short memory, and THAT makes you sometimes contradictory to YOURSELF !?
    Please read back your comment, dated Nov/26/ 12:03 pm, asking Mr Gutierrez to stick to the main subject matter, and refrain from side tracking on OTHER issues !?
    BUT this is what YOU just did above !? WHICH IS ACCEPTABLE & SUITS ME FINE !

    You just raised one point of my comment (.. INVASION) and turned a BLIND EYE on OTHERS !? Like the “HEAVENLY SENT” USA, SPYING on It’s OWN CITIZENS, OWN NATO Allies, Ms Angela Merkel .. AAAND the world over; confiscating SPYING rights, denying it to Cuba, China’s Huawei, Russia and the rest of It’s ADVERSARIES, and planting MORE than 800 military, AND SPYING bases around the world & … NOT excluding “OUTER SPACE” !!!???

    A last word please ..?
    IT IS up to CubanSSS (?) to change their totalitarian system if .. THEY WISH ? And NOT that of ANY d***** Super power, to do SO ???

    Reply
  • I note Nassim Fathallah your comment that I contradicted myself -without explaining the way in which I did so ?
    Cuba has a very efficient interior spying service in the CDR ie: it in your words is “SPYING on it’s OWN CITIZENS ” which reports to the Ministry of the Interior (MININT). MININT also controls Cuba’s overseas spying service for example the so-called Cuban Five. Both are under Alejandro Castro Espin, Raul Castro’s KGB trained son.
    Your final comment that:
    “IT IS up to CubanSSS (?) to change their system if .. THEY WISH ?
    It is interesting that you agree that the Castro regime is totalitarian, but to then suggest that the citizens of Cuba could if they so wished, change it is obviously farcical.
    Either you fail to understand the meaning of the word “totalitarian” or you possess a ripe imagination. Let me remind you of the definition of “totalitarian”.
    “relating to a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state.” – Oxford English Dictionary.
    That being the correct definition, how could the poor oppressed people of Cuba choose to change the Castro communist system ?

    Reply

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