By Maykel Paneque

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UMAP brigade officers and laborers.

HAVANA TIMES — Some days ago, I read a piece published by Cuba’s Juventud Rebelde titled “Obama to Hiroshima: Peace without Apologies.” The article pointed out that, even though Obama is to become the first US president in office to visit Hiroshima, “he will not offer an apology for the use of the atomic bomb in that city and Nagasaki, under orders from President Harry Truman.”

Among other comments, the note reminded readers that, 71 years ago, “on August 6, 1945, the bomb killed some 140,000 people in Hiroshima, and, on August 9, another bomb killed an additional 80,000,” adding that, even though “the great majority of casualties were civilian, the world has yet to hear a formal apology from the White House.”

The ability of Cuba’s official press to vividly recall certain incidents and conceal others is remarkable. We needn’t look too far: This past November 19th marked the 50th anniversary of the establishment of Cuba’s Military Production Aid Units (UMAP), an appendage of the country’s obligatory military service which resulted in the creation of forced labor and concentration camps.

Neither Juventud Rebelde, nor Granma nor Trabajadores, to mention only the major newspapers, made mention of this horrible experiment or cared to recall that more than 25,000 thousand young people and others who were not so young, suffered captivity, besieged by guard dogs, armed guards and barbed-wire fences that were electrified at night.

As though suffering from collective amnesia, the journalists, editors and editors in chief of those official newspapers do not appear to recall the 14 to 16-hour work days and the people who made up the population of those camps in Cuba’s province of Camaguey: homosexuals, practitioners of different religions and anyone considered a dissident, people who did not fit the mold of the “new man” established by the government in its attempts to impel the revolutionary process. There they would be reeducated and turned into real men.

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Medals for officers at the UMAP camps.

The passionate need to forget – or, better said, deny – the past has led to attempts to conceal the horrible toll of the UMAP: 72 deaths from torture and executions, 180 suicides and more than 500 people who ended up in psychiatric hospitals.

The Cuban government and, needless to say, the official media, have buried these figures and sought to cover the suffering and pain with a cloak of silence. To date, they have yet to corroborate or deny the statistics, nor have they called upon any of the survivors to offer proof of having lived through these ordeals. As they say, “silence is consent.”

The handful of reports published by Granma, El Mundo and Verde Olivo in 1966 were commendable pieces of misinformation, destined to distort the reality of a senseless, speculative experimental work devoid of any scientific basis, such as the use of electroshock therapy and insulin shocks to try and change the sexual preferences of homosexuals.

Of course, the Cuban government is in its right to chalk up these figures and the alleged confessions to hearsay, people’s morbid imagination and the decontextualized analysis of incidents that took place between November 19, 1965 and June 30, 1968.

The government has the right to say Cuba was isolated, that it needed to beef up its workforce to breathe fresh air into a dying economy. But it must also explain what its selection criterion was, because if the revolution was for everyone, why were homosexuals, the religious and a broad spectrum of “disaffected” souls – potential deserters, vagabonds, pimps and others – considered “scum.”

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Memories of the UMAP.

It also has the right – or, better said, the moral duty – to publish the details of how those concentration camps were filled: by summoning people whose names were collected in the big crackdowns carried out in popular places, from reports issued by the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR) and worker unions, as well as from files classified by the Depuration Operations carried out at universities and other educational facilities, “clean up” operations that, in addition to being the forerunners to the UMAP, spread terror and undermined confidence in the emancipatory project.

We have looked abroad again, as we have done so many times, and have expressed indignation at the fact Obama will not offer apologies for the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during his visit to Japan at the close of May, to attend the G-7 summit.

When will the official press express anger for the silence that has surrounded the events in the UMAP for more than half a century? When will they ask forgiveness of the victims for having put them in that hell, and admit, while they’re at it, that they’ve left scars that endure to this day? Will we have to wait 71 years before Juventud Rebelde owns up to the truth?

This part of our history –the UMAP camps- should hurt us all, and if we are going to be looking for the straw in another’s eye we should have the courage to remember and demand formal apologies here at home.


20 thoughts on “Cuba’s Two Memories

  • I never alleged that balance prevents atrocities. I contend that our system allows those who disagree with the US government to seek redress. The possibility is this redress does have a chilling effect on those bad actors would otherwise commit atrocities.

  • Moses, you choose to be blind to the worst excesses of the US government, as if alleged “balance” prevents attrocities. I send this reply to you on the 71st Anniversary of Hiroshima. I have been there and met a few survivors and I was a unwitting participant in the US domination and occupation of Okinawa for some years. Each country and people deserves to be considered in context and with an honest intent to judge what is just for the greater good. You are the one who wants to believe the Cuban society and revolution is to be assessed in terms of the Castro’s while you want to ignore not just the relevance of the US societies injustices in general, but more importantly the actions of the US that have directly caused death and suffering to Cubans that was neither necessary nor just. Your attempt to redirect the the issues to the Castro’s is like the cop who argues a bad cop is just a single bad apple. The US government is guilty and Cuba deserves not just apologies, but compensation and relief.

  • Well, this is a first. For once you have conceded I have some good points.

    But you echo my point, that it is a slippery slope to justify anything, post hoc (my addition). In the moment, the people making the decisions are acting on the best information available, trying to decide what is best for the people who they are charged with protecting, President Roosevelt, and Truman after him, acted in the best interests of the American people. As it happened, they saved hundreds of thousands of US lives and millions of Japanese and Asian lives. For you to insist that it would have worked out better if the US had done nothing, as if the raging war could have been put on pause, is to indulge in delusions of moral narcissism.

    Every day, thousands of innocent civilians were being murdered by the Japanese Imperial Army. Using the atom bomb stopped that within a week. Perhaps a squadron of magical unicorns could have appeared over Tokyo and needed the war with pixie dust. All other alternatives, short of fantasy, would have allowed the slaughter to continue.

  • Some good points. I don’t agree that firebombing civilians is justified either, even if they support their government or to save your own soldiers. It’s a slippery slope to justifying anything. Concentration camp guards justified their role as their “war duty”. These things often come back to bite you in the long run. I agree that there was a lot of fanaticism on the Japanese side but it remains a possibility that this could have achieved results given time. I agree with Ken that the US did indeed want to demonstrate the bombs power to the USSR.

    I never “pretend to moral outrage” and you have completely misunderstood what I was trying to say. I was saying how easy it is to justify an atrocity on the basis of another previous atrocity. I was showing what Bin Ladin could say to justify 9/11.

  • Whether it was morally right or not to bomb a city of a country which had attacked the US is one questions, and it can be debated endlessly. The other question of whether it was worse to use an atomic bomb rather than conventional explosives is another question. The firebombing of Tokyo on March 9th, 1945 killed more civilians than the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It’s not at all clear that these victims died more humanely than the victims of Hiroshima.

    The question of whether or not it is ever morally justified to target civilian population in war is a messy and complex one. It’s a delusion to think these questions can or should be argued from an armchair and without considering the historical and social context of the war.

    Suppose the civilian population overwhelmingly supports their military which has been engaged in an aggressive war against their neighbours? This was the case with Japan, which had invaded and attacked Korea, Manchuria, China, Indochina, Philippines, Taiwan and Hawaii. This war of aggression by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy had the overwhelming support of the Japanese population. Are these civilians, therefore, not equally responsible for the war? In this situation, was it not justified to take the war to the Japanese civilians as a means to ending it? For the US President, who’s prime responsibility is the defence of the United States and it’s people, the decision to end the war as quickly as possible was chosen because it was the best way to reduce the number of US casualties.

    By the way, that consideration, to reduce the number of casualties, never once troubled Stalin. He gave no concern to saving the lives of Russian soldiers which he used as cannons fodder. His goal was only to extend his own power.

    The argument that the US could have held a demonstration detonation to convince the Japanese to end the war has been thoroughly refuted, and by the Japanese themselves. At the time, the US had only 4 atomic bombs. They detonated the 1st one in New Mexico to see if the idea worked. The US warned Japan that they now possessed a powerful new weapon and were prepared to use it. Japan ignored the warning. They dropped the bomb on Hiroshima on August 6th. The Japanese refuse to surrender. Speeches were made in Japan that the Japanese nation would fight to the last man, that they would rather be annihilated than surrender.

    Nagasaki was bombed 3 days later, on August 9th. Still the Japanese refused to surrender. At a council of war ministers, the fanatical military still insisted on fighting to the death. The Emperor Hirohito did not agree. On August 12, the Emperor decided to surrender. While on his way to the radio station, the Emperor’s motorcade was ambushed by a group of army officers intent on stopping him. Fortunately, the Emperor’s body guards fought off the attackers and the Emperor was able to make his speech. Subsequent to the war, interviews with senior Japanese officers confirmed the view that no demonstration explosion would have convinced them to surrender. They were all prepared to fight to the death.

    The suggestion that the bombing was militarily unnecessary and done as a demonstration to warn Stalin is also false. Stalin already knew about the atomic bombs, as he has spies inside the Manhattan project. The USSR declared war in Japan after the bombs had been dropped on Hiroshima & Nagasaki. Russian troops were moving to invade and annex as much of Japan and it’s defeated empire as quickly as possible. Stalin’s behaviour was not that of one who has been warned off aggression.

    The moral outrage you pretend to uphold is surprisingly lopsided and selective. When you write, “look how Israel treats the Palestinians”, you must also look honestly at how the Palestinians and the surrounding Arab states have treated Israel. They have all made public their intention is to destroy Israel and drive the Jews into the sea. You should also look at how Palestinians are abused by Arab states who treat them as vermin: for example, in 1970 the Jordanian military attacked Palestinian refugee camps and killed some 9000 people, driving them into Lebanon.

    The US has indeed backed Muslims: they sent troops to defend Muslims in Bosnia & Kosovo. When sectarian terrorists in Iraq where car bombing mosques, it was US troops who defended Muslim civilians. In Afghanistan, were Taliban terrorists shot school girls, it’s US troops who defend the Muslim children. The US has sponsored countless peace negotiations between Israel & the Palestinians, only to have the Palestinians reject every offer. Still the US & Europe continue to subsidize the Palestinians with hundreds of millions of dollars in funding for schools, hospitals and infrastructure.

    And why would the Palestinian leaders ever accept peace? They’ve become very wealthy scamming the West for cash, living high in Dubai, while the Palestinian people are held hostage by Hamas in Gaza, or by Fatah in the West Bank, or in refugee camps in the repressive Arab dictatorships.

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