Cuban Exiles and the Republican Party
In understanding the Miami Cubans’ transition from the Democratic to the Republican parties, two factors are fundamental: their reluctance to behave like a minority, and their rejection of total assimilation into the country that gave them refuge.
By Alejandro Armengol (Cubaencuentro)
HAVANA TIMES – It’s been said that deceased former Republican leader Ronald Reagan knew how to take advantage of white people’s violent backlash to the civil rights movement. This doesn’t mean accusing Reagan of racism per se; rather, he’s seen as a skillful politician, ready to seize the opportunity for change. From overwhelmingly widespread affiliation with the Democratic Party, many white people in the south passed over to equally widespread support for the Republicans.
For many years, the Democratic party tolerated the South’s enormous racism, while the region’s Congresspeople merely adapted to the “local color”. Certainly, there were figures like Lyndon B. Johnson, who was characterized by a progressive attitude in domestic affairs. Johnson was key to legislation in favor of civil rights in 1964, the voting rights act in 1965, and an extension of social security, even though he would go down in history largely as an aggressive and failed leader, due to his escalation of the Vietnam War.
Still, there were others in the Republican camp, like Richard Nixon, who couldn’t exactly be considered a complete opposite, since on certain occasions they implemented a pragmatism that went beyond the ideological and party barriers. The interesting thing in both cases is that they established narratives that later became myths, justifying their opportune change with great emotional force.
The Republican strategy employed by Reagan also explains in large measure the Cuban exiles’ switch from Democrats to Republicans. For years, this change has continued to be so strongly rooted in the exile community’s way of thinking – especially in Miami – that it has justified injustices, poor electoral choices and even corrupt activities that the courts have condemned, with a hard shell that goes far beyond any reasoning and is purely irrational.
In the Cuban case, two factors are basic to understanding that transition from Democrats to Republicans: the reluctance of the exiles from the island to behave like a minority – although that doesn’t impede them from claiming benefits that come with said classification – and their rejection of total assimilation into the nation that gave them shelter.
Cubans have abundant national pride in their country of origin, but although the concept is repeated to the point of exhaustion, patriotism – understood as the ideal of over-turning the regime in Havana – hasn’t been the fundamental motive in choosing a political party. Rather, there’s a well-worn emotional justification that’s been exploited again and again by opportunist politicians, but also unquestionably admitted by voters, all too willing to accept any passing justification.
That explains the Republican loyalty, despite the repeated failures of the party leaders to achieve any kind of change in Cuba. It’s true that the Democratic Party leaders also haven’t achieved much, but a Republican is always absolved, whereas a Democrat is presumed guilty from the outset.
The first generations of exiles were filled with pride at their reluctance to join the “melting pot”. They dodged the transformations of US society, where integration was ceding to multiculturalism. They demanded that their singularity be respected and closed themselves off to outside differences.
While they certainly demonstrated an impressive capacity for entrepreneurism, the refugees from the decades of the sixties and seventies stressed only their merit in this. They completely failed to acknowledge the fact that they also received exceptional support from US government organizations including: start-up loans for businesses, recognition of their university degrees, and scholarships to study, among others. Those arriving during the sixties, especially, were favored in a way that the US never before and never afterwards supported any other refugees or minority.
This uniqueness, together with their myopia about the circumstances, for decades shaped a number of differences in the exiles’ behavior. One of them is their party preference: a great number of Cuban Americans who are registered voters belong to the Republican, not the Democratic, Party, although the latter has traditionally been preferred by the African-American and Latinx minorities. Cuban American voters are also characterized by their punctuality and perseverance at the hour of voting, which has made them a highly valued electorate in any political contest.
Two Democratic leaders are frequently blamed for alienating the Cuban exile community from the Democratic ranks. First was John F. Kennedy, because they felt betrayed by his actions during the Bay of Pigs invasion, and again during the October Cuban missile crisis. Later, Jimmy Carter is blamed, for authorizing the “dialogue”, allowing exiles trips to Cuba, and opening the US Interests Section in Havana.
The reality is much more complex. Numerous Cuban politicians continued to be Democrats, even after Ronald Reagan’s arrival in power. For example, Lincoln Diaz Balart remained a Democrat up until 1985. In 1984, he served as co-president of the “Democrats for Reagan” organization, a fact that antagonized other members of what had hitherto been his party, a party where he would never win a primary election.
The general switch from Democrats to Republicans on the part of many Cuban voters was due to different circumstances: the creation of the Cuban-American National Foundation, the actions of former Florida governor Jeb Bush in favor of certain exile community members convicted of terrorist acts, and the Republican Party’s skill at taking advantage of the exiles’ frustration at the failure of the armed counterrevolutionary struggle. The latter led to new emphasis on the Cuban embargo, now seen as the last hope for those opposed to Castro. In themselves, the exiles are neither Republicans nor Democrats; instead, just as happens with the rest of the population of this country, they’re guided by their leaders.
Political convenience – or perhaps it would be more adequate to speak of a politics of conveniences – has played an equally important role in the exiles’ perception of Republicanism as the political philosophy most suited to the ideals of the struggle against the Castro camp. That’s the best way to explain the greater tolerance with the Republican leaders as regards US policy towards the island.
After leaving the White House, Donald Trump has maintained his popularity with the most radical anti-Castro sector of the Cuban exile community. Since first launching his campaign for the country’s presidency, Trump has been supported by the most conservative sector of the Cuban community in this city. Despite his defeat at the ballot boxes across the nation – not even having won a majority in Miami-Dade county – a good number of Cuban-American voters continue to idolize him.
8 thoughts on “Cuban Exiles and the Republican Party”
Good wishes and blessings to you sir.
I’m just a humble country boy from England.
We’re the reason why you good folks over there in the Disunited States of America speak the language we invented……..
Just an observation from an outsider:
Do Republican voting states in the USA have less social problems coz they generally got less people living in them??
Seems like pretty clear logic to me.
Curt, That’s a bit harsh. In fact it’s almost racist to lump only southern or Republican states into a group you perceive as less intelligent based on their voting practices. I could easily counter with the real facts; first off all, look at the worst off cities and states in the US. Violent crime out of control, state agencies bankrupt and borrowing against workers pension funds. They are all politicly controlled by the Democrats. Nearly all the Republican states have fewer homeless issues, lower crime and a surplus of funds, all with lower tax rates than those run by the party that claims to care more and to be the conscience of the downtrodden
The Cubans I know and have worked with do not trust the Democrats just as the other poster (Miami9 Cuban) stated. They try to buy your vote on one hand, while picking your pocket with the other. Cubans saw in the Dems, the same thing they saw in Castro and his Communist cronies. They were wise to steer clear of that creeping socialist ideology.
It seems growing number of today’s younger generation of Cubans is also waking to that reality. You can’t blame the Bad USA forever; look inside yourself and your own so called leaders.
Good luck my island friends.
There is a faction of Cuban Americans who claim, in their opposition to the Cuban Government, to be against demagoguery and in favour of democracy.
Then they go and worship at the corrupt altar of trump, a demagogue who tried to undermine democracy in the USA.
It’s worth pointing out that this absurdist hypocrisy does not apply to all Cuban Americans.
Kati, Why should Cubans get preferential treatment over other immigrants that are fleeing countries just as bad or worse than Cuba. They have been treated better than any other immigrant group in the US. Fortunately, Obama got rid of the wet foot dry foot policy allowing them to stay if they reached dry land. They can still apply for citizenship after 1 year, unlike other immigrants.
what a bunch of rot! I have never commented before, but this article is too outrageously one sided to dismiss. not only have past politicians acted inhumanely toward cubans, but the current administration is horrific. biden and the dems have enforeced “repatriation” of cubans.
in 2021 “The Coast Guard says that since October of last year they’ve interdicted and sent 2,464 Cuban refugees back to Cuba. But yet with the southern border everyone who wants in gets in. The double standard is astounding.” from https://therightscoop.com/breaking-bidens-coast-guard-boasts-about-sending-cuban-refugees-back-to-cuba/
promises are thrown about like dust in the wind making it sound like this party cares for people but in reality the goal is to get more votes, maintain power and filling personal bank accounts.
i welcome most people from this country to come here, to be my neighbor. i’ve been to this beautiful country. the cubans i know are hard working, not after handouts and smart – so not the kind of people who will fall in lock-step with the democratic party in the u.s.a.
I definitely want to read this article again, slowly and more carefully (kinda rushed now). This is a something I’ve been following or thinking about for the almost 4 decades of living in SoFL. There’s a lot to unpack in this piece.
Alejandro Armengol, thank you for this piece and : are there any other articles you’ve written or recommend on this discussion of the voting politics of Cubans in the US? I haven’t read Cubaencuentro in a while, but will start there in case this was edited down from a longer article. BTW, I’m not an academic.
Quite simply, Cuban Americans realized that the Democrats were pulling the wool over their eyes about being in their interests. When the American left kept getting cozier and cozier with the same socialism that destroyed their home country, it was a pretty obvious bad idea to trust or join them.
Miami Cubans are kind of like the voters in Kentucky, West Virginia, and other Republican leaning lower income states. They vote Republican and against their own interests.
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